LYSOZYME

A remarkable natural antimicrobial and antiviral enzyme. Since its discovery by Alexander Fleming in 1921, LYSOZYME remains one of the most potent natural antimicrobial compounds identified to date. Perhaps best known for its presence in saliva and tears, LYSOZYME holds a critical front-line defence role for both plants and animals. Its potent bacteriolytic, bacteriostatic, and bactericidal action has made LYSOZYME highly valued across broad industries, finding application in products ranging from cheese, beer, and wine to toothpaste, and eyedrops.

A 1-4-Beta-N-Acetylmuramidase comprising 129 amino acids, LYSOZYME is a small enzyme which potently cuts the exposed outer protective peptidoglycan coating of gram-positive bacteria. This irreversibly ruptures bacterial cell walls by increasing their susceptibility to osmotic shock and mechanical stress. Nature has found use for this property in fluids ranging from blood, sweat, and tears to mothers’ milk, and egg whites. This abundance in hen’s egg-white was first identified in 1922, and it remains one of the most LYSOZYME-rich sources known to man.

At Bioseutica® we have been extracting nature’s best from eggs, including LYSOZYME since the 1950s, perfecting our patented processes to deliver the highest standards of purity without the use of solvents. Not only are we the global leader, we are the only LYSOZYME producer certified to be free of avian flu virus by the Pasteur Texcell Institute.

Once extracted, our food-grade LYSOZYME is a non-toxic, microcrystalline, odourless powder with a subtly sweet taste. Available from free-range sources upon request, the remaining egg-white goes on to be used in the production of ice creams, cakes, and other foods.

Not just gram-positive bacteria

The best-studied, now classical bactericidal mechanism of LYSOZYME is its lysis of the peptidoglycan coat of gram-positive bacteria. More recent studies have identified further capabilities of LYSOZYME as an antiviral and antifungal, in addition to gram-negative disrupting properties. LYSOZYME is positively charged (cationic), so is attracted to the negatively charged lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria1. This dampens the inflammatory reactions elicited by gram-negative bacteria2, and can lead to permeabilization of both the inner and outer membrane of gram-negative strains including E Coli 3,4.

Studies of LYSOZYME’s antiviral potential have shown promise against herpes virus5, HIV6, bovine diarrhoeal virus7, and foot-and-mouth strains8. Anti-fungal activity has been identified against Candida Albicans9,10

Lysozyme Applications

Food: Increasing shelf-life, reducing spoilage, and bioactive packaging

The food industry has taken advantage of the natural antimicrobial properties of LYSOZYME, incorporating it into processing methods, and using it as a preservative. Bioseutica® has developed LYSOLAC®, LYSOVIN, and LYSOBIER®, formulations of LYSOZYME tailored to cheesemaking, winemaking, and beer brewing. These are highly cost-effective approaches to protecting these precious products from spoilage, increasing their shelf-life, reliability of quality, and yield.

LYSOZYME can also be used as an effective antimicrobial preservative for fresh fruits, seafood, vegetables, fresh meats, processed meats, sushi, and noodles among others. This property has also been utilised in bioactive packaging, providing a protective coating that increases shelf-life, and preserves the quality of packaged foods.

Animal Health and Nutrition: Improving health and wellbeing grants greater yields

LYSOZYME is highly effective in animal health applications, providing antimicrobial protection whilst restoring microbiological balance. Through our in-house expertise in LYSOZYME production and applications, we have developed the immunity-boosting ENTEGARD® range. These LYSOZYME-based feed additives are now available in formulations specifically developed for poultry, swine, and aquaculture operations. Through its immune, nutrient absorption, and gut health-boosting properties, ENTEGARD® reduces mortality, improving animal health and wellbeing, ultimately driving increased yield.

The ENTEGARD® range is highly valued by RWA (raised without antibiotic) operations, allowing producers to develop antibiotic-free (ABF) processes without sacrificing their productivity. ENTEGARD® offers producers an effective, easy-to-use solution to the increasing consumer demand for antibiotic-free animal products.

Hygiene, Skincare, and Cosmeceuticals: The natural choice

Taking inspiration from nature, LYSOZYME finds effective applications in oral-care products for the treatment of mouth ulcers, sore throat, and mouth sores. LYSOZYME has also been incorporated into skincare treatments, and eyedrops, augmenting the body’s own antimicrobial mechanisms.


Bioseutica® offers a comprehensive range of LYSOZYME based products, ranging from those ready-formulated for specific applications to our pharmaceutical-grade API LYSOZYME.

See below to learn more about our product range, and our new innovations in animal wellbeing and nootropic food supplements.

References

 

  1. Ferraboschi, P.; Ciceri, S.; Grisenti, P. Applications of Lysozyme, an Innate Immune Defense Factor, as an Alternative Antibiotic | Publisher Site
  2. Takada K et al.: Detoxification of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by egg white lysozyme | Publisher Site
  3. Tagashira A. et al.: Lysozyme from hen egg white ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammation in mice | Publisher Site
  4. Derde M et al.: Hen Egg White Lysozyme Permeabilizes Escherichia coli Outer and Inner Membranes | Publisher Site
  5. Derde M et al.: Native lysozyme and dry-heated lysozyme interactions with membrane lipid monolayers: Lateral reorganization of LPS monolayer, model of the Escherichia coli outer membrane | Publisher Site
  6. Ferrari R.: Antiviral activity of Lysozyme Nature 1959 | Publisher Site
  7. Lee-Huang S et al.: Lysozyme and RNases as anti-HIV components in beta-core preparations of human chorionic gonadotropin | Publisher Site
  8. Malaczewska et al.: Antiviral effects of nisin, lysozyme, lactoferrin and their mixtures against bovine viral diarrhoea virus | Publisher Site
  9. Fukai et al.: New possibilities for egg white lysozyme: heat-denatured lysozyme partially inactivates select foot-and-mouth virus strains | Publisher Site
  10. Sebaa S. et al.: Dose-dependent effect of lysozyme upon Candida albicans biofilm | Publisher Site
  11. Samaranayake Y et al.: Antifungal Effects of Lysozyme and Lactoferrin against Genetically Similar, Sequential Candida albicans Isolates from a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Southern Chinese Cohort | Publisher Site
  12. Dai, P.; Li, Q.: Lysozyme : Research progress in the application of lysozyme in food and medicine field - A review | Publisher Site

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